Biochemistry Department

Anthony Norman


Anthony Norman

Anthony W. Norman
Distinguished Professor of Biochemistry &
Biomedical Sciences, Emeritus


Molecular Endocrinology
Signal Transduction
Biomedical Research

Norman Research Group
Curriculum Vitae

Awards & Honors
  • National Institutes of Health Special Fellowship, 1970/71
  • Fulbright Fellowship, 1970/71
  • Mead Johnson Award, American Institute of Nutrition, 1977
  • Ernst Oppenheimer Award, Endocrine Society, 1977
  • Listed as one of the 425 and 325 most cited scientists for 1965-1985, respectively, by the Institute for Scientific Information
  • Prix Andre Lichtwitz (INSERM, Paris, France), 1981
  • Faculty Research Lecturer, University of California, Riverside, 1982
  • MERIT Award from National Institutes of Health, 1986-1993
  • Osborne & Mendel Award, American Institute of Nutrition, 1990
  • William F. Neuman Award, American Society for Bone & Mineral Research, 1995
  • Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995
  • Presidential Chair, Biochemistry Department, University of California, Riverside (7/1/99 -2009)
  • Graduate Student Mentor award from UC-Riverside, June 2005.
Selected Recent Publications (from a total of >799 publications) from the Laboratory of Anthony W. Norman:
  • Norman, A.W., Mizwicki, M.T., Norman, D.P.G. Steroid-hormone rapid actions, membrane receptors and a conformational ensemble model.  Nature Reviews: Drug Discovery 3:27-41 (2004). (AWN-748.pdf)
  • Zanello, L.P., and Norman, A.W.  Rapid modulation of osteoblast ion channel responses by 1a,25(OH)2-vitamin D3PNAS 101: 1589-1594 (2004). (AWN-751.pdf) requires the presence of a functional vitamin D nuclear receptor.
  • Mizwicki, M.T., Keidel, D., Bula, C.M.,Bishop, J. E.,Zanello, L.P., Wurtz, J.-M., Moras, D. and Norman, A.W.  Identification of an alternative ligand-binding pocket in the nuclear vitamin D receptor and its functional importance in 1a,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 signaling. PNAS 101:12876-12881 (2004). (AWN-759.pdf)
  • Huhtakangas, J.A., Olivera, C.J., Bishop, J.E., Zanello, L.P, and Norman, A.W. The vitamin D receptor is present in caveolae and binds 1a,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 in vivo and in vitro.  Mol. Endo. 18:2660-2671 (2004). (AWN-761.pdf)
  • Bula, C.M., Huhtakangas, J.A., Olivera, C. J., Bishop, J.E., Norman, A.W., Henry, H.L. Presence of a Truncated Form of VDR in a Strain of VDR KO Mice. Endocrinology. 146:5581-5586 (2005). (AWN-769.pdf)
  • Norman, A.W. Vitamin D Receptor (VDR): New assignments for an already busy receptor. Endocrinology 147: 5542-5548 (2006). (AWN-771.pdf)
  • Vieth, R., Bischoff-Ferrari, H., Boucher, B., Dawson-Hughes, B., Garland, C., Heaney, R., Holick, M., Hollis, B., Lamberg-Allardt, C., McGrath, J., Norman, A., Scragg, R., Whiting, S., Willett, W., and Zittermann, A. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007 85: 649-650 (2007). (AWN-774.pdf)
  • Bula, C., Bishop, J., Norman A.W. Conservative mutageneic perturbations of amino acids connecting helix 12 in the 1a,25(OH)2-D3 receptor (VDR) to the ligand cause significant transactivational effects. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. 103: 286-292 (2007). (AWN-776.pdf)
  • Menegaz, D., Barrientos-Duran, A., Kline, A., Silva, F.R., Norman, A.W. Mizwicki, M.T. and Zanello, L.P. 1,25(OH)2-VitaminD3 stimulation of secretion via chloride channel activation in Sertoli cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 119:127-134 (2010).  AWN-793
  • Mizwicki, M.T., Menegaz, D., Yahgmaei, S., Henry, H.L. and Norman, A.W. A molecular description of ligand binding to the two overlapping binding pockets of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR): Structure-function implications. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 121:98-105 (2010).  AWN-794 
  • Norman, A.W. and Bouillon, R. Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp. Biol. Med. 235:1034-1045 (2010). AWN-795

    Historical Publications from the Norman Laboratory of Some Importance:

    Discovery of the Steroid Hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3:
  • Haussler, M. R., J. F. Myrtle and A. W. Norman.  The association of a metabolite of vitamin D3 with intestinal mucosa chromatin in vivo.  J. Biol. Chem. 243, 4055-4064 (1968).  [Note:  This was the first publication to report the existence of 1a,25(OH)2D3 whose structure was subsequently reported in Science 173: 51-54 (1971).] (AWN-21.pdf)
  • Myrtle, J. F., M. R. Haussler and A. W. Norman.  Evidence for the biologically active form of cholecalciferol in the intestine.  J. Biol. Chem. 245, 1190-1196 (1970).  [Note: This paper was subsequently selected as a "nutrition classic" by Nutrition Reviews, 49, 302-305 (1991) where it was republished.] (AWN-27.pdf)
  • Myrtle, J. F. and A. W. Norman.  Vitamin D: a cholecalciferol metabolite highly active in promoting intestinal calcium transport.  Science 171:78-82 (1971). (AWN-33.pdf)

    Discovery of the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR):
  • Haussler, M. R. and A. W. Norman.  Chromosomal receptor for a vitamin D metabolite.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 62, 155-162 (1969).  [Note: This paper was subsequently selected as a "nutrition classic" by Nutrition Reviews, 43, 181-183 (1985) where it was republished.] (AWN-25.pdf)
  • Norman, A.W., D. Adams, E.D. Collins, W.H. Okamura and R.J. Fletterick.  Three-dimensional model of the ligand binding domain of the nuclear receptor for 1a,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 74:323-333 (1999). (AWN-693)

    Treatment of first patients with the Steroid Hormone 1,25(OH)2vitamin D3:
  • Brickman, A. S., J. W. Coburn, A. W. Norman.  Action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a potent, kidney-produced metabolite of vitamin D3, in uremic man.  New Engl. J. Med. 287, 891-895 (1972).
  • Brickman, A. S., J. W. Coburn, K. Kurokawa, J. E. Bethune, H. E. Harrison and A. W. Norman.  Actions of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in patients with hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets.  New Engl. J. Med. 289, 495-498 (1973).
  • Brickman, A. S., J. W. Coburn, S. G. Massry and A. W. Norman.  1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal man and patients with renal failure.  Ann. Intern. Med. 80, 161-168 (1974).
  • Bar, A. and A. W. Norman.  Studies on the mode of action of calciferol XXXIV. Relationship of the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolites to gonadal activity and egg shell formation in the quail.  Endocrinology 109:950-955 (1981). (AWN-277)
  • Reichel, H., H. P. Koeffler and A. W. Norman.  The role of the vitamin D endocrine system in health and disease.  New England Journal of Medicine 320:980-991 (1989). (AWN-505)

    Vitamin D and 1a,25(OH)2D3 are Important for Insulin Secretion:
  • Norman, A.W., B.J. Frankel, A M. Heldt and G.M. Grodsky.  Vitamin D deficiency inhibits pancreatic secretion of insulin.  Science 209:823-825 (1980). (AWN-244)
  • Christakos, S. and A. W. Norman.  Studies on the mode of action of calciferol XXIX. Biochemical characterization of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in chick pancreas and kidney cytosol. Endocrinology 108:140-149 (1981). (AWN-265)
  • Roth, J., S. Bonner-Weir, A. W. Norman and L. Orci.  Immunocytochemistry of vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein in chick pancreas: Exclusive localization in b-cells.  Endocrinology 111:2216-2218 (1982). (AWN-297)
  • Kadowaki, S. and A. W. Norman.  Studies on the mode of action of calciferol. XLIX. Dietary vitamin D is essential for normal insulin secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Journal of Clinical Investment 73:759-766 (1984). (AWN-357)
  • Kadowaki, S. and A. W. Norman.  Demonstration that the vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 and not 24R,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 is essential for normal insulin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas.  Diabetes 34:315-320 (1985). (AWN-387)
  • Kadowaki, S. and A.W. Norman.  Studies on the mode of action of calciferol. LIX.  Time course study of the insulin secretion after 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration.  Endocrinology 117:1765-1771 (1985). (AWN-414)

    1,25(OH)2D3 Mediates Rapid Biological Responses:
  • Nemere, I., Y. Yoshimoto and A. W. Norman.  Studies on the mode of action ofcalciferol. LIV. Calcium transport in perfused duodena from normal chicks:  Enhancement within14 minutes of exposure to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.  EndocrinologyAWN-376.pdf)
  • Nemere, I. and A.W. Norman.  Studies on the mode of action of calciferol LII.  Rapid action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3Journal of Bone and Mineral Research2:99-107 (1987). (AWN-445) on calcium transport in perfused chick duodenum:  Effect of inhibitors.  
  • Nemere, I. and A.W. Norman.  1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated vesicular transport of calcium in intestine:  Time course studies.  Endocrinology 122:2962-2969 (1988). (AWN-478)
  • Nemere, I., V. L. Leathers, B. S. Thompson, R. A. Luben and A. W. Norman. Redistribution of Calbindin -D28K in Chick Intestine in Response to Calcium Transport. Endocrinology 129/6 2972-2984 (1991). (AWN-553.pdf)
  • Norman, A.W., R. Bouillon, M.C. Farach-Carson, J.E. Bishop, L-X. Zhou, I. Nemere, J. Zhao, K.R. Muralidharan, and W.H. Okamura.  Demonstration that 1b,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is an antagonist of the nongenomic but not genomic biological responses and biological profile of the three A-ring diastereoisomers of 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.  Journal of Biological Chemistry 268/27:20022-20030 (1993). (AWN-602.pdf)
  • Zanello, L.P. and A.W. Norman.  Stimulation by 1a,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 of whole cell chloride currents in osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells:  A structure-function study.  Journal of Biological Chemistry 272:22617-22622 (1997). (AWN-660.pdf)
  • Norman, A.W., W.H. Okamura, M.W. Hammond, J.E. Bishop, M.C. Dormanen, R. Bouillon, H. van Baelen, A.L. Ridall, E. Daane, R. Khoury, and M.C. Farach-Carson. Comparison of 6-s-cis- and 6-s-trans-locked analogs of 1a,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 indicates that the 6-s-cis conformation is preferred for rapid nongenomic biological responses and that neither 6-s-cis- nor 6-s-trans-locked analogs are preferred for genomic biological responses. Molecular Endocrinology 11:1518-1531 (1997). (AWN-657.pdf)
  • Zanello, L.P., and Norman, A.W.  Rapid modulation of osteoblast ion channel responses by 1a,25(OH)2-vitamin D3PNAS 101: 1589-1594 (2004). (AWN-751.pdf ) 115:1476-1483 (1984). requires the presence of a functional vitamin D nuclear receptor.

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